Conserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity.

TitleConserved shifts in the gut microbiota due to gastric bypass reduce host weight and adiposity.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsLiou, AP, Paziuk, M, Luevano, J-M, Machineni, S, Turnbaugh, PJ, Kaplan, LM
JournalSci Transl Med
Volume5
Issue178
Pagination178ra41
Date Published2013 Mar 27
ISSN1946-6242
KeywordsAdiposity, Animals, Body Weight, Eating, Gastric Bypass, Gastrointestinal Tract, Male, Metagenome, Mice, Mice, Inbred C57BL
Abstract

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) results in rapid weight loss, reduced adiposity, and improved glucose metabolism. These effects are not simply attributable to decreased caloric intake or absorption, but the mechanisms linking rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract to these metabolic outcomes are largely unknown. Studies in humans and rats have shown that RYGB restructures the gut microbiota, prompting the hypothesis that some of the effects of RYGB are caused by altered host-microbial interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used a mouse model of RYGB that recapitulates many of the metabolic outcomes in humans. 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of murine fecal samples collected after RYGB surgery, sham surgery, or sham surgery coupled to caloric restriction revealed that alterations to the gut microbiota after RYGB are conserved among humans, rats, and mice, resulting in a rapid and sustained increase in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria (Escherichia) and Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia). These changes were independent of weight change and caloric restriction, were detectable throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract, and were most evident in the distal gut, downstream of the surgical manipulation site. Transfer of the gut microbiota from RYGB-treated mice to nonoperated, germ-free mice resulted in weight loss and decreased fat mass in the recipient animals relative to recipients of microbiota induced by sham surgery, potentially due to altered microbial production of short-chain fatty acids. These findings provide the first empirical support for the claim that changes in the gut microbiota contribute to reduced host weight and adiposity after RYGB surgery.

DOI10.1126/scitranslmed.3005687
Alternate JournalSci Transl Med
PubMed ID23536013
PubMed Central IDPMC3652229
Grant ListDK088661 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
F32 DK095561 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
F32 DK095561 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK043351 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
P30DK034854 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
P50 GM068763 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States