Metagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome.

TitleMetagenomic analysis of the human distal gut microbiome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsGill, SR, Pop, M, Deboy, RT, Eckburg, PB, Turnbaugh, PJ, Samuel, BS, Gordon, JI, Relman, DA, Fraser-Liggett, CM, Nelson, KE
JournalScience
Volume312
Issue5778
Pagination1355-9
Date Published2006 Jun 2
ISSN1095-9203
KeywordsAdult, Bacteria, Bifidobacterium, Dietary Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, DNA, Ribosomal, Feces, Female, Fermentation, Genetic Variation, Genome, Bacterial, Genomics, Humans, Intestinal Mucosa, Intestines, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Open Reading Frames, Phylogeny, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Xenobiotics
Abstract

The human intestinal microbiota is composed of 10(13) to 10(14) microorganisms whose collective genome ("microbiome") contains at least 100 times as many genes as our own genome. We analyzed approximately 78 million base pairs of unique DNA sequence and 2062 polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA sequences obtained from the fecal DNAs of two healthy adults. Using metabolic function analyses of identified genes, we compared our human genome with the average content of previously sequenced microbial genomes. Our microbiome has significantly enriched metabolism of glycans, amino acids, and xenobiotics; methanogenesis; and 2-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway-mediated biosynthesis of vitamins and isoprenoids. Thus, humans are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation of microbial and human attributes.

DOI10.1126/science.1124234
Alternate JournalScience
PubMed ID16741115
PubMed Central IDPMC3027896
Grant ListAI51259 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
DK70977 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI051259 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
R01 AI051259-04 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States